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Xiaoqian LÜ, Hao XU, Sheng ZHAO, Fanzhou KONG, Tian YAN, Peng JIANG. The green tide in Yingkou, China in summer 2021 was caused by a subtropical alga—Ulva meridionalis (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta)[J]. Journal of Oceanology and Limnology, 2022, 40(6): 2354-2363

The green tide in Yingkou, China in summer 2021 was caused by a subtropical alga—Ulva meridionalis (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta)

Xiaoqian LÜ1,2,3, Hao XU1,2,3, Sheng ZHAO4, Fanzhou KONG5,6, Tian YAN5,6, Peng JIANG1,2
1 CAS and Shandong Province Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;
2 Laboratory for Marine Biology and Biotechnology, Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology(Qingdao), Qingdao 266237, China;
3 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;
4 North China Sea Environmental Monitoring Center, State Oceanic Administration, Qingdao 266033, China;
5 CAS Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;
6 Laboratory for Marine Ecology and Environmental Science, Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology(Qingdao), Qingdao 266237, China
The large-scale green tide caused by Ulva has occurred successively in the Yellow Sea since 2007, and new events of green tide also continued to appear in nearby sea areas, indicating an undergoing rapid development of occurrence patterns for harmful macroalgal blooms (HMBs) along coastal China. In August 2021, a green tide occurred for the first time in Bayuquan sea area of Yingkou city, Liaoning Province in the Bohai Sea. In this study, morphological and molecular approaches were used to identify the causative species as U. meridionalis, an alien subtropical alga previously found to dominate green tides in the South China Sea. According to the hydrological data of Bayuquan in summer 2021, combined with morphological and developmental observations for this alga, we hypothesized that the disturbance caused by the typhoon In-Fa might have detached the local U. meridionalis from substrates, especially for those thalli with poorly developed holdfasts, and the ensuing wave-free period with unusually high temperature, which fell in the reported optimum growth temperature for U. meridionalis, might have provided the favorable conditions for the final bloom of the floating seaweeds. This is the first report on the bloom of subtropical U. meridionalis in the north temperate sea zone, indicating that the ecological risk of causing green tides in the future by this rapidly spreading species deserves high attention.
Key words:    Bohai Sea|green tide|holdfast|alien species|Ulva meridionalis|Yingkou   
Received: 2022-01-11   Revised:
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