Cite this paper:
Zhangxi HU, Xiaoying SONG, Jinxiu WANG, Zhe TAO, Yuanyuan SUN, Yuhang LI, Yuyang LIU, Yunyan DENG, Lixia SHANG, Zhaoyang CHAI, Yingzhong TANG. Reviving and characterizing three species of dinoflagellate cysts dormant for about 70 years in the East China Sea: Biecheleria brevisulcata, Biecheleriopsis adriatica, and Scrippsiella donghaienis[J]. Journal of Oceanology and Limnology, 2022, 40(6): 2292-2311

Reviving and characterizing three species of dinoflagellate cysts dormant for about 70 years in the East China Sea: Biecheleria brevisulcata, Biecheleriopsis adriatica, and Scrippsiella donghaienis

Zhangxi HU1,2,3,6, Xiaoying SONG2,7, Jinxiu WANG2,7, Zhe TAO2,7, Yuanyuan SUN4, Yuhang LI5, Yuyang LIU2, Yunyan DENG2,3,6, Lixia SHANG2,3,6, Zhaoyang CHAI2,3,6, Yingzhong TANG2,3,6
1 College of Fisheries, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang 524088, China;
2 CAS Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;
3 Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Science, Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology(Qingdao), Qingdao 266237, China;
4 CAS Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;
5 Laboratory of Marine Organism Taxonomy and Phylogeny, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;
6 Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;
7 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Many marine dinoflagellates can form resting cysts as a part of their life cycle, and the cysts could be buried in sediment and remained viable for as long as over 150 years. However, only a very limited number of cyst species have been revived from long-buried sediments and investigated in regard to a possible shift in the intra-specific genetic structure of a species detected from the historical record at a particular location. Here, we report a successful germination of three species of resting cysts that were sampled from the depth dated back to 1941±18 AD from a 44-cm sediment core from the East China Sea. Seven isolates were established from germination of single cyst isolation or multi-cyst germinations. LSU rRNA gene or ITS sequences of these strains were obtained, then they were identified to be Biecheleria brevisulcata (five strains), Biecheleriopsis adriatica (one strain), and Scrippsiella donghaienis (one strain) in terms of morphology and rRNA gene sequence. Biecheleria brevisulcata strain 1, Bps. adriatica strain 21, and S. donghaienis strain 23 were examined in detail with light microscope (LM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), and analyzed with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for their pigment compositions, and genetic diversity. We also confirmed the presence of a resting cyst of Bps. adriatica in the field for the first time. The LSU rRNA gene-based genetic distances of Bps. adriatica from that obtained from water sample, single-cell PCR sequencing for the cysts isolated from the surface sediment of the same sea area and that reported from other regions during the recent years, and ITS-based genetic distances of S. donghaienis from that obtained from cysts isolated from the surface sediment of the same location and that reported from other regions during the recent years indicated that the intra-specific genetic structure of each species in the sampling area may have shifted during the last 70 years. Our work confirms that B. brevisulcata, Bps. adriatica, and S. donghaienis, all described as new species around 2010, have inhabited the East China Sea for about 70 years. The present work reports for the first time the revival of dinoflagellate resting cysts long-buried in the coastal sediments of China, which facilitates further study on the historical occurrences of other harmful dinoflagellates and their relevance to the regional climate and environmental changes in China.
Key words:    core sediment|dinoflagellate resting cyst|germination|Biecheleria brevisulcata|Biecheleriopsis adriatica|Scrippsiella donghaienis   
Received: 2022-03-14   Revised:
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