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Zhongxing WU, Songqi YANG, Junqiong SHI. Overview of the distribution and adaptation of a bloomforming cyanobacterium Raphidiopsis raciborskii: integrating genomics, toxicity, and ecophysiology[J]. Journal of Oceanology and Limnology, 2022, 40(5): 1774-1791

Overview of the distribution and adaptation of a bloomforming cyanobacterium Raphidiopsis raciborskii: integrating genomics, toxicity, and ecophysiology

Zhongxing WU, Songqi YANG, Junqiong SHI
Key Laboratory of Eco-environments in Three Gorges Reservoir Region (Ministry of Education), Chongqing Key Laboratory of Plant Ecology and Resources Research in Three Gorges Reservoir Region, School of Life Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China
Raphidiopsis raciborskii is a notorious bloom-forming and filamentous cyanobacterium that has been extensively investigated into its toxicity, phylogeny, and spreading potential. Studies have demonstrated that this species has spanned different climates from tropical zones to temperate regions, suggesting that R. raciborskii is becoming a cosmopolitan species in freshwater systems around the world. In fact, it has been proposed that several characteristics of R. raciborskii may explain its spread and dominance. In particular, R. raciborskii is known to display a high extent of physiological plasticity regarding nutrients, light regimes, and temperatures. Moreover, this species illustrates different ecotypes with distinct environmental requirements. Here, we present an overview of R. raciborskii’s global distribution and adaptation strategy based on the recent findings from genome variance, toxicity, and ecophysiology. The expansion of its geographical distribution can be linked to its genome, toxicity, and ecophysiology. The variable genes are mainly associated with the stress response, phage defense, DNA repair, cell cycle control, and membrane transport, illustrating the species’ adaptability in response to changing environments. In fact, the species shows rapid adaptability to low and/or variable nutrient availability, especially changing phosphorus availability. Moreover, the variabilities of strains within the population extend their flexibility to adapt and acclimate to ambient environment. In addition, cylindrospermopsins (CYN) appear to have a potential biological role in facilitating theirs dominance or bloom. These strategies of R. raciborskii make it a challenge to manage in a freshwater system, reflecting the management of its bloom from further evidence of the complex ecophysiology, toxicity, and genome of this species.
Key words:    distribution    ecophysiology    genome variance    Raphidiopsis raciborskii    toxicity   
Received: 2021-09-27   Revised: 2021-12-04
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