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Zhaohe LUO, Hua ZHANG, Qun LI, Lei WANG, Hala F MOHAMED, Songhui LÜ, Haifeng GU. Characterization of Amphidinium (Amphidiniales, Dinophyceae) species from the China Sea based on morphological, molecular, and pigment data[J]. Journal of Oceanology and Limnology, 2022, 40(3): 1191-1219

Characterization of Amphidinium (Amphidiniales, Dinophyceae) species from the China Sea based on morphological, molecular, and pigment data

Zhaohe LUO1, Hua ZHANG2,3, Qun LI2, Lei WANG1, Hala F MOHAMED1,4, Songhui LÜ2,5, Haifeng GU1,6
1 Third Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, Xiamen 361005, China;
2 Research Center of Harmful Algae and Marine Biology, College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510362, China;
3 Shenzhen Academy of Environmental Science, Shenzhen 510008, China;
4 Botany&Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University(Girls Branch), Cairo 11751, Egypt;
5 Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory, Zhuhai 519000, China;
6 Observation and Research Station of Coastal Wetland Ecosystem in Beibu Gulf, Ministry of Natural Resources, Beihai 536015, China
Amphidinium species are amongst the most abundant benthic dinoflagellates in marine intertidal sandy ecosystems. Some of them are able to produce a variety of bioactive compounds that can have both harmful effects and pharmaceutical potentials. The diversity of Amphidinium in shallow waters along the Chinese coast was investigated by isolating single cells from sand, coral, and macroalgal samples collected from 2012 to 2020. Their morphologies were subjected to examination using light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A total of 74 Amphidinium strains were morphologically identified, belonging to 11 species: A. carterae, A. gibbosum, A. operculatum, A. massartii, A. cf. massartii, A. fijiensis, A. pseudomassartii, A. steinii, A. thermaeum, A. theodori, A. tomasii, as well as an undefined species. The last seven species have not been previously reported in Chinese waters. Amphidinium carterae subclades Ⅰ, Ⅱ, and Ⅳ were found in the South China Sea, while subclade Ⅲ was only found in the Yellow Sea. Threadlike body scales were observed on the surface of subclades Ⅲ and Ⅳ, supporting the idea that A. carterae might contain several different species. Large subunit ribosomal RNA (LSU rRNA) sequencesbased phylogeny revealed two groups (Groups Ⅰ and Ⅱ) within Amphidinium, which is consistent with the relative position of sulcus (in touch with cingulum or not). In addition, large differences in morphology and molecular phylogeny between A. operculatum (the type species of Amphidinium) and other species, suggest that a subdivision of Amphidinium might be needed. The pigment profiles of all available strains were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Eleven pigments, including peridinin, diadinoxanthin, diatoxanthin, pheophorbide (and pheophorbide a), antheraxanthin, β-carotene, and four different chlorophylls were detected. The high pheophorbide / pheophorbide a ratio in Amphidinium implies that it may be a good candidate as a natural source of photosensitizers, a well-known anticancer drug.
Key words:    harmful algae|benthic-epiphytic dinoflagellate|phylogeny|geographic distribution|pheophorbide|photosensitizers   
Received: 2021-02-06   Revised:
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