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Jian ZOU, Qun LI, Hui LIU, Ying LIU, Lifen HUANG, Haiyan WU, Jiangbing QIU, Hua ZHANG, Songhui LÜ. Taxonomy and toxin profile of harmful benthic Prorocentrum (Dinophyceae) species from the Xisha Islands, South China Sea[J]. Journal of Oceanology and Limnology, 2022, 40(3): 1171-1190

Taxonomy and toxin profile of harmful benthic Prorocentrum (Dinophyceae) species from the Xisha Islands, South China Sea

Jian ZOU1, Qun LI1, Hui LIU1, Ying LIU2, Lifen HUANG1, Haiyan WU3, Jiangbing QIU4, Hua ZHANG1,5, Songhui LÜ1,6
1 Research Center of Harmful Algae and Marine Biology, College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510362, China;
2 State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Drinking Water Source Management and Technology, Shenzhen Academy of Environmental Science, Shenzhen 510008, China;
3 Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Qingdao 266071, China;
4 College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, China;
5 Shenzhen Academy of Environmental Science, Shenzhen 510008, China;
6 Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory, Zhuhai 519000, China
Some benthic Prorocentrum can produce okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxins (DTXs) that cause diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP) in humans. The diversity and toxin profiles (OA and DTXs) of benthic Prorocentrum were investigated in the Xisha Islands, South China Sea. The benthic Prorocentrum was identified by both morphological features and molecular phylogenies. Morphologies were examined by light, fluorescence, and scanning electron microscopy, and phylogenetic analyses were based on partial large subunit (LSU) rDNA and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 (ITS) region. Seven Prorocentrum species including P. borbonicum, P. caipirignum, P. concavum, P. elegans, P. cf. emarginatum, P. lima complex, and P. rhathymum were identified in Xisha Islands. Among them, P. borbonicum and P. elegans were recorded in Chinese waters for the first time. OA and DTXs contents of seven benthic Prorocentrum species were evaluated based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). All Xisha Islands strains of P. lima complex produced OA at contents ranging from 1 663 to 3 816 fg/cell. P. caipirignum also generated OA at 407 fg/cell, but other five species had no detectable toxins. Besides, interestingly, two strains of P. lima complex produced DTX-1 only (74 and 183 fg/cell) and another two strains generated an isomer of OA and DTX-2. Our findings provided insight into the biodiversity of benthic Prorocentrum in the Xisha Islands and pointed out the potential risk of DSP in this area.
Key words:    Prorocentrum|diversity|dinoflagellate|okadaic acid|dinophysistoxins|Xisha Islands   
Received: 2021-02-08   Revised:
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