Cite this paper:
Chen PAN, Zhi LIAO, Jianyu HE, Zhongqi GU, Chunyue WANG, Meihua FAN, Isabella BUTTINO, Baoying GUO, Xiaojun YAN, Xiaolin ZHANG. Carnosine concentration and expression profiles of carnosine related genes in Mytilus after beta-alanine injection[J]. Journal of Oceanology and Limnology, 2022, 40(3): 1121-1134

Carnosine concentration and expression profiles of carnosine related genes in Mytilus after beta-alanine injection

Chen PAN1, Zhi LIAO1, Jianyu HE1, Zhongqi GU2, Chunyue WANG1, Meihua FAN1, Isabella BUTTINO3, Baoying GUO1, Xiaojun YAN1, Xiaolin ZHANG1
1 Laboratory of Marine Biology Protein Engineering, Marine Science and Technical College, Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan 316022, China;
2 Bureau of Science and Technology Shengsi, Zhoushan 316022, China;
3 Italian Institute for Environmental Protection and Research(ISPRA), Via Vitaliano Brancati 48, Rome 00144, Italy
Carnosine and its analogues are histidine-containing dipeptides (HCDs) playing diverse functions in vertebrates. However, the distribution and the metabolism of carnosine in invertebrates are still unknown. In this study, Mytilus coruscus, a shellfish with important economic value in China, was selected for the investigation of HCD content and the expression profiling of carnosine-related genes in various mussel tissues. Quantification of HCD by amino acids analyzer revealed a low concentration of anserine in muscular tissues in Mytilus, indicating the presence of HCD even in an invertebrate. mRNA expression of five carnosine metabolic-related genes was profiled in various tissues, and the results highlighted the relative higher expression level of these genes in muscular tissues. Considering the fact that beta-alanine supplementation can increase the HCD content in vertebrates, a beta-alanine injection was performed and the changes of HCD concentration and the mRNA expression of carnosine related genes were investigated in five mussel tissues. The results revealed the increase of HCD concentration, as well as the up-regulated expression level of related genes, in tested tissues of beta-alanine injected mussels. Transcriptomic analysis for the whole soft tissue of mussel before and after beta-alanine injection were performed, and 3 569 differential expression genes (DEGs) were identified in the beta-alanine injected group when compared to their expression levels in the control. These data indicated the complex effects of betaalanine on M. coruscus metabolism, and those DEGs enriched in pathways of cancers, muscle contraction, and tyrosine metabolism highlighted the possible functions of beta-alanine in cell proliferation, sports, and melanogenesis, respectively.
Key words:    Mytilus coruscus|beta-alanine|carnosine|histidine-containing dipeptides|transcriptome   
Received: 2021-03-22   Revised:
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