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Jianyan WANG, Tiezhu MI, Zhigang YU, Guoshan WANG, Qinsheng WEI, Jing YANG, Yu ZHEN. Species-specific detection and quantification of scyphomedusae in Jiaozhou Bay, China, using a quantitative real-time PCR assay[J]. Journal of Oceanology and Limnology, 2021, 39(4): 1360-1372

Species-specific detection and quantification of scyphomedusae in Jiaozhou Bay, China, using a quantitative real-time PCR assay

Jianyan WANG1,2,3, Tiezhu MI2,3,4, Zhigang YU2,5, Guoshan WANG6, Qinsheng WEI7, Jing YANG1, Yu ZHEN2,3,4
1 Department of Science Research, Beijing Museum of Natural History, Beijing 100050, China;
2 Laboratory for Marine Ecology and Environmental Science, Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology(Qingdao), Qingdao 266237, China;
3 Key Laboratory of Marine Environment and Ecology, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, China;
4 College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, China;
5 Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology, Ministry of Education/Institute for Advanced Ocean Study, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, China;
6 National Marine Hazard Mitigation Service, Ministry of Natural Resources, Beijing 100194, China;
7 First Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, Qingdao 266061, China
Over the past decades, jellyfish occurred increasingly and abundantly in coastal areas worldwide. Usually, biomass of jellyfish, especially when they bloom, can be determined by visual counting. However, tiny individuals of jellyfish (e.g., planulae, polyps, and ephyrae) are difficult to detect in the field. In this study, species-specific quantitative real-time PCR assays (qPCR) (SYBR Green I) targeting the mitochondrial 16S rDNA (mt-16S rDNA) of jellyfish were developed and were used to estimate the distribution and seasonal fluctuations of four jellyfish species (Nemopilema nomurai, Cyanea nozakii, Rhopilema esculentum, and Aurelia coerulea) in Jiaozhou Bay (JZB), China in 2013. The mt-16S rDNA of A. coerulea and N. nomurai was detected in most of the survey months and it peaked in July (1.03�104 copies/L) and September (1.08�106 copies/L), respectively. The mt-16S rDNA of C. nozakii occurred from August to October only with monthly mean values of 7.18-46.17 copies/L and was mainly located from the middle part to the outer part of the bay. The mt-16S rDNA of R. esculentum was the least abundant among the four species and was detected in only one sample (B2 station in March), with a value of 88.49 copies/L. The Spearman correlation test revealed that phytoplankton biomass was significantly and positively correlated with the mt-16S rDNA abundance of A. coerulea (R=0.37, P<0.01) and negatively with the mt-16S rDNA of N. nomurai (R=-0.36, P<0.01). The qPCR assay will enable the identification and quantification of jellyfish species in their whole life history and can be used as an approach in combination of the traditional jellyfish survey.
Key words:    jellyfish bloom|Aurelia coerulea|Nemopilema nomurai|Cyanea nozakii|Rhopilema esculentum|mitochondrial 16S rDNA   
Received: 2020-04-15   Revised: 2020-06-15
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